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Alabama Has New Learning Standards
Alabama’s new standards, known as College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS), are designed to ensure that students graduate from school prepared to succeed in college or career and build a strong future for themselves, our communities, and the country.
The Alabama College and Career Ready Initiative was a stateled effort to establish consistent and clear education standards for Englishlanguage arts and mathematics so students will be prepared for success in today’s world.
The new standards are aligned with the Common Core State Standards adopted by 45 states so that regardless of where students live, learning standards are the same and students moving from one state to another will have shared learning goals. With students, parents, and teachers all on the same page and working together toward shared goals, we can These new standards are designed to be relevant in the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in both college and career.
When American students have the skills and knowledge needed in today’s job market, our communities will be strong and competitive in the global economy.
The standards incorporate the best and highest of previous state standards in the U.S. and are internationally benchmarked to the top performing nations around the world.
The best understanding of what works in education comes from experience. That’s why the standards were developed by teachers, principals, parents, and education experts, not politicians in Washington.
The best understanding of what works in the classroom comes from the teachers who are in them, which is why the standards allow each teacher in each classroom to figure out what works best for his or her students.
The Development Process
The initiative was launched by state leaders through their membership in the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center).
The process used to write the standards was designed to ensure that the standards were informed by the best standards among states and around the globe; the experience of teachers, content experts, states, and feedback from the general public.


Make Word Walls Interactive
Periodically have discussions/questions/make exit slips about words on the word wall:
1. I am thinking of a word….(Teacher gives clues until students select the proper word.)
2. What word means the opposite of ___________?
3. What word means the same as ______________?
4. What word(s) goes with ________________?
5. What words describe types of ______________?
6. What words describe this picture/diagram? (Teacher displays a picture, graph, diagram, etc.)
7. What words match with the symbol _____________? (Teacher displays symbol)
8. What word is in a category with _____________and what is the name of the category?
9. I will name two words in a category; you find another word on the wall that belongs to that category and explain the association.
10. My word is ________________. Pick another word (or two other words) off the word wall and make a meaningful connection between the two words in a sentence.


STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES OBSERVATION TOOL
Adapted from KATM/KSDE Summer Academy 2011…Developed by Melissa Hancock
Overall: The mathematics tasks focus on developing CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING and encouraging ALL students to make sense of the mathematics and to exhibit higherorder thinking skills. As you observe lessons in the classroom, check to see if STUDENTS exhibited the following behaviors in solving mathematics problems and if TEACHERS facilitated these behaviors by providing cognitively demanding tasks and encouraging sense making for ALL students.
Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

MAKE SENSE OF PROBLEMS AND
PERSEVERE IN SOLVING THEM

Openended problem with no solution pathway evident.
Nonroutine problems with multiple solutions.

Teacher:
· Provides time and facilitates discussion in problem solutions.
· Facilitates discourse in the classroom so that students UNDERSTAND the approaches of others.
· Provides opportunities for students to explain themselves, the meaning of a problem, etc.
· Provides opportunities for students to connect concepts to “their” world.
· Provides students TIME to think and become “patient” problem solvers.
· Facilitates and encourages students to check their answers using different methods (not calculators).
· Provides problems that focus on relationships and are “generalizable”.

Students:
· Are actively engaged in solving problems & thinking is visible (i.e., DOING MATHEMATICS vs. FOLLOWING STEPS OR PROCEDURES).
· Are analyzing givens, constraints, relationships, and goals (NOT the teacher).
· Are discussing with one another, making conjectures, planning a solution pathway, not jumping into a solution attempt or guessing at the direction to take.
· Relate current “situation” to concept or skill previously learned and check answers using different methods.
· Continually ask self, does this make sense?

Evidence & Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

REASON ABSTRACTLY AND QUANTITATIVELY

Provide a context or situation for students that allows them to “abstract” the situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents.
ü
ü Tasks that allow for pausing during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved.

Teacher:
· Provides a range of representations of math problem situations and encourages various solutions.
· Provides opportunities for students to make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations.
· Provides problems that require flexible use of properties of operations and objects.
· Emphasizes quantitative reasoning which entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them and/or rules; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Students:
· Use varied representations and approaches when solving problems.
· Make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations.
· Are decontextualizing (abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols), and contextualizing (pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved.
· Use quantitative reasoning that entails creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand, considering the units involved, and attending to the meaning of quantities, NOT just how to compute them.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

CONSTRUCT VIABLE ARGUMENTS AND CRITIQUE THE
ARGUMENTS OF OTHERS

Tasks that allow students to analyze situations by breaking them into cases and then justify, defend/refute and communicate examples and counterexamples, etc. etc.

Teacher:
· Provides ALL students opportunities to understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments.
· Provides ample time for students to make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures.
· Provides opportunities for students to construct arguments and critique arguments of peers.
· Facilitates and guides students in recognizing and using counterexamples.
· Encourages and facilitates students justifying their conclusions, communicating, and responding to the arguments of others.
· Asks useful questions to clarify and/or improve students’ arguments.

Students:
· Make conjectures and explore the truth of their conjectures.
· Recognize and use counterexamples.
· Justify and defend ALL conclusions and communicates them to others.
· Recognize and explain flaws in arguments. (After listening or reading arguments of others, they respond by deciding whether or not they make sense. They ask useful questions to improve arguments.)
· Elementary Students: construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, actions. Later, students learn to determine the domains to which an argument applies.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

MODEL WITH MATHEMATICS

Problem solving situations such as:
Elementary: this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation.
Middle grades: a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community.
High School: a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another.

Teacher:
· Provides problem situations that apply to everyday life.
· Provides rich tasks that focus on conceptual understanding, relationships, etc.

Students:
· Apply the mathematics they know to everyday life, society, and the workplace.
· Write equations to describe situations.
· Are comfortable in making assumptions and approximations to simplify complicated situations.
· Analyze relationships to draw conclusions.
· Improve their model if it has not served its purpose.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

ATTENDS TO PRECISION

Elementary: students are solving problems and carefully formulating explanations to others.
High School: students are examining claims and making explicit use of definitions.

Teacher:
· Facilitates, encourages and expects precision in communication.
· Provides opportunities for students to explain and/or write their reasoning to others.

Students:
· Use and clarify mathematical definitions in discussions and in their own reasoning (orally and in writing).
· Use, understand and state the meanings of symbols.
· Express numerical answers with a degree of precision.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

USE APPROPRIATE TOOLS

Elementary: students are provided tasks that require a variety of tools to solve.
High School: tasks might include students analyzing graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator to detect possible errors by using estimations and other mathematical knowledge.

Teacher:
· Provides a variety of tools and technology for students to explore to deepen their understanding of math concepts.
· Provides problem solving tasks that require students to consider a variety of tools for solving. (Tools might include pencil/paper, concrete models, ruler, protractor, calculator, spreadsheet, computer algebra system, statistical package, or dynamic geometry software, etc.)

Students:
· Consider available tools when solving a mathematical problem.
· Are familiar with a variety of mathematics tools and use them when appropriate to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

LOOK FOR AND
MAKE USE
OF STRUCTURE

Elementary: task might require students to notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides they shapes have. Later, students will see 7x8=the well remembered 7x5+7x3, in preparation for the distributive property.
High School: in the expression x²+9x+14, students see the 14 as 2x7 and the 9 as 2+7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems.

Teacher:
· Provides opportunities and time for students to explore patterns and relationships to solve problems.
· Provides rich tasks and facilitates pattern seeking and understanding of relationships in numbers rather than following a set of steps and/or procedures.

Students:
· Look closely to discern patterns or structure.
· Associate patterns with properties of operations and their relationships.
· Step back for an overview and can shift perspective.
· See complicated things, such as algebraic expressions, as single objects or as composed of several objects. (Younger children decompose and compose numbers.)

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical
Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Students:
Actions/Responsibilities

LOOK FOR AND EXPRESS
REGULARITY IN REPEATED REASONING

Upper Elementary: solving problems and noticing that when dividing 25 by 11 they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal.
Middle School: students might abstract the equation (y2)/)=3 by paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether the points are on the line through (1,2) with a slope of 3.
High School: Tasks that allow High School students to notice regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x1)(x+1()x²+1) and (x1)(x³+x²+x+1) which might lead to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series.

Teacher:
· Provides problem situations that allow students to explore regularity and repeated reasoning.
· Provides rich tasks that encourage students to use repeated reasoning to form generalizations and provides opportunities for students to communicate these generalizations.

Students:
· Notice if calculations are repeated and look for both general methods and shortcuts.
· Pay attention to regularity and use to solve problems.
· Use regularity and use this to lead to a general formula and generalizations.
· Maintain oversight of the process of solving a problem while attending to details and continually evaluates the reasonableness of immediate results.

Evidence and Comments:
STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES OBSERVATION TOOL
Adapted from KATM/KSDE Summer Academy 2011…Developed by Melissa Hancock
Overall: The mathematics tasks focus on developing CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING and encouraging ALL students to make sense of the mathematics and to exhibit higherorder thinking skills. As you observe lessons in the classroom, check to see if STUDENTS exhibited the following behaviors in solving mathematics problems and if TEACHERS facilitated these behaviors by providing cognitively demanding tasks and encouraging sense making for ALL students.
Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

MAKE SENSE OF PROBLEMS AND
PERSEVERE IN SOLVING THEM

Openended problem with no solution pathway evident.
Nonroutine problems with multiple solutions.

Teacher:
· Provides time and facilitates discussion in problem solutions.
· Facilitates discourse in the classroom so that students UNDERSTAND the approaches of others.
· Provides opportunities for students to explain themselves, the meaning of a problem, etc.
· Provides opportunities for students to connect concepts to “their” world.
· Provides students TIME to think and become “patient” problem solvers.
· Facilitates and encourages students to check their answers using different methods (not calculators).
· Provides problems that focus on relationships and are “generalizable”.

Students:
· Are actively engaged in solving problems & thinking is visible (i.e., DOING MATHEMATICS vs. FOLLOWING STEPS OR PROCEDURES).
· Are analyzing givens, constraints, relationships, and goals (NOT the teacher).
· Are discussing with one another, making conjectures, planning a solution pathway, not jumping into a solution attempt or guessing at the direction to take.
· Relate current “situation” to concept or skill previously learned and check answers using different methods.
· Continually ask self, does this make sense?

Evidence & Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

REASON ABSTRACTLY AND QUANTITATIVELY

Provide a context or situation for students that allows them to “abstract” the situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents.
ü
ü Tasks that allow for pausing during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved.

Teacher:
· Provides a range of representations of math problem situations and encourages various solutions.
· Provides opportunities for students to make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations.
· Provides problems that require flexible use of properties of operations and objects.
· Emphasizes quantitative reasoning which entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them and/or rules; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Students:
· Use varied representations and approaches when solving problems.
· Make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations.
· Are decontextualizing (abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols), and contextualizing (pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved.
· Use quantitative reasoning that entails creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand, considering the units involved, and attending to the meaning of quantities, NOT just how to compute them.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

CONSTRUCT VIABLE ARGUMENTS AND CRITIQUE THE
ARGUMENTS OF OTHERS

Tasks that allow students to analyze situations by breaking them into cases and then justify, defend/refute and communicate examples and counterexamples, etc. etc.

Teacher:
· Provides ALL students opportunities to understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments.
· Provides ample time for students to make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures.
· Provides opportunities for students to construct arguments and critique arguments of peers.
· Facilitates and guides students in recognizing and using counterexamples.
· Encourages and facilitates students justifying their conclusions, communicating, and responding to the arguments of others.
· Asks useful questions to clarify and/or improve students’ arguments.

Students:
· Make conjectures and explore the truth of their conjectures.
· Recognize and use counterexamples.
· Justify and defend ALL conclusions and communicates them to others.
· Recognize and explain flaws in arguments. (After listening or reading arguments of others, they respond by deciding whether or not they make sense. They ask useful questions to improve arguments.)
· Elementary Students: construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, actions. Later, students learn to determine the domains to which an argument applies.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

MODEL WITH MATHEMATICS

Problem solving situations such as:
Elementary: this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation.
Middle grades: a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community.
High School: a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another.

Teacher:
· Provides problem situations that apply to everyday life.
· Provides rich tasks that focus on conceptual understanding, relationships, etc.

Students:
· Apply the mathematics they know to everyday life, society, and the workplace.
· Write equations to describe situations.
· Are comfortable in making assumptions and approximations to simplify complicated situations.
· Analyze relationships to draw conclusions.
· Improve their model if it has not served its purpose.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

ATTENDS TO PRECISION

Elementary: students are solving problems and carefully formulating explanations to others.
High School: students are examining claims and making explicit use of definitions.

Teacher:
· Facilitates, encourages and expects precision in communication.
· Provides opportunities for students to explain and/or write their reasoning to others.

Students:
· Use and clarify mathematical definitions in discussions and in their own reasoning (orally and in writing).
· Use, understand and state the meanings of symbols.
· Express numerical answers with a degree of precision.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

USE APPROPRIATE TOOLS

Elementary: students are provided tasks that require a variety of tools to solve.
High School: tasks might include students analyzing graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator to detect possible errors by using estimations and other mathematical knowledge.

Teacher:
· Provides a variety of tools and technology for students to explore to deepen their understanding of math concepts.
· Provides problem solving tasks that require students to consider a variety of tools for solving. (Tools might include pencil/paper, concrete models, ruler, protractor, calculator, spreadsheet, computer algebra system, statistical package, or dynamic geometry software, etc.)

Students:
· Consider available tools when solving a mathematical problem.
· Are familiar with a variety of mathematics tools and use them when appropriate to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Student:
Actions/Responsibilities

LOOK FOR AND
MAKE USE
OF STRUCTURE

Elementary: task might require students to notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides they shapes have. Later, students will see 7x8=the well remembered 7x5+7x3, in preparation for the distributive property.
High School: in the expression x²+9x+14, students see the 14 as 2x7 and the 9 as 2+7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems.

Teacher:
· Provides opportunities and time for students to explore patterns and relationships to solve problems.
· Provides rich tasks and facilitates pattern seeking and understanding of relationships in numbers rather than following a set of steps and/or procedures.

Students:
· Look closely to discern patterns or structure.
· Associate patterns with properties of operations and their relationships.
· Step back for an overview and can shift perspective.
· See complicated things, such as algebraic expressions, as single objects or as composed of several objects. (Younger children decompose and compose numbers.)

Evidence and Comments:

Mathematical
Practice Standard

Task (Example)

Teacher:
Actions/Responsibilities

Students:
Actions/Responsibilities

LOOK FOR AND EXPRESS
REGULARITY IN REPEATED REASONING

Upper Elementary: solving problems and noticing that when dividing 25 by 11 they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal.
Middle School: students might abstract the equation (y2)/)=3 by paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether the points are on the line through (1,2) with a slope of 3.
High School: Tasks that allow High School students to notice regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x1)(x+1()x²+1) and (x1)(x³+x²+x+1) which might lead to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series.

Teacher:
· Provides problem situations that allow students to explore regularity and repeated reasoning.
· Provides rich tasks that encourage students to use repeated reasoning to form generalizations and provides opportunities for students to communicate these generalizations.

Students:
· Notice if calculations are repeated and look for both general methods and shortcuts.
· Pay attention to regularity and use to solve problems.
· Use regularity and use this to lead to a general formula and generalizations.
· Maintain oversight of the process of solving a problem while attending to details and continually evaluates the reasonableness of immediate results.

Evidence and Comments:














Morgan County Schools
National Board Certified Teachers
2011 Kathy Defoor (Eva School)
2011 Kimberly Dockery (Eva School)
2008 Lynn Knight (Falkville Elementary School)
2007 Lynne Hughes (Priceville Elementary)
2007 Theresa Mayfield (Priceville Elementary) RETIRED May 2011
2006 Kimberly Smith (Priceville Elementary)
2005 Melissa Ozbolt (Ryan)
2004 Sophia Clotfelter (Priceville Elementary)
2004 Teresa Brown (Danville Neel Elementary)
2004 Amy Hood (Priceville Elementary)
2002 Debrah Thomason (Cotaco)
2001 Suzanne Blackman (Danville Neel) Recertified November 2010
2001 Valerie Powell (Sparkman) Recertified November 2010
2000 Stacy Hughes (West Morgan Middle) Recertified November 2009
Teachers earn National Board Certification by demonstrating the ability to maintain high and rigorous standards of accomplished and effective teachers.
For more information on National Board Certification visit http://www.nbpts.org.


Scaffolding Reading and the Wonders Weekly Assessments
Students are being exposed to much more complex texts, vocabulary, and assessments than ever before with our new CCRS standards. In order for students to learn what the standards demand and be successful while they are learning, students will need a lot of support in terms of scaffolding. Scaffolding Instruction describes specialized teaching strategies geared to support learning when students are first introduced to new standards and concepts. Scaffolding gives students a context, motivation, or foundation from which to understand the new information that will be introduced during the coming lesson or the new skills that are being assessed. Scaffolding is a series of learning steps that a teacher designs for a student to help fill in the gaps of what is missing in his understanding of a concept. The goal is to accomplish getting to a higher level of learning.
Scaffolding techniques should be considered fundamental to good, solid teaching for all students, not just those with learning disabilities or second language learners. In order for learning to progress, scaffolds should be gradually removed as instruction continues, so that students will eventually be able to demonstrate comprehension independently.
Remember to scaffold as you do Wonders in teaching
· how to read and think critically
· how to process what they have read through “think alouds”
· how to locate answers
· how to begin discussion answers, etc.
After you feel scaffolding is not needed (you can continue to scaffold until you feel students have mastered the steps) and take a step out each time until students are independent.
Here are a few tips (steps) for scaffolding the Wonders reading assessments:
1. Before taking a test, teachers should read the selection and questions themselves so they may know how to prepare students for “look fors”..
2. Read the first story with the students. (Echo it or do choral reading)
3. Read each question  stopping to discuss what the question is asking
and model “think alouds”.
4 Model how to locate answers and pick out choices.
5. On the 2nd passage, read the questions and discuss with students as mentioned above. Then have them read the selection. Tell them "Remember how we found the answers the first time, use these same strategies."
6. For discussion questions, model how their discussion questions need to begin. Guide them the first time. "What would be a good answer? How would you write it?" Model how it should look and how to show evidence.
Tests can be broken down in 2 days, instead of 1 setting.
Remember to model, model, modeluntil you feel they have mastered the strategies needed for effective reading.
Teachers should help students by adding in quizzes on the skills being assessed. The Wonders weekly assessments should NOT be the only grades taken by the teacher.



